Hong Kong Med J 2000;6:69-76 | Number 1, March 2000
SEMINAR PAPERS--DIABETES MELLITUS IN ASIA
Genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus
WY So, MCY Ng, SC Lee, T Sanke, HK Lee, JCN Chan
Divisions of Clinical Pharmacology and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease that is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Only a minority of cases of type 2 diabetes are caused by a single-gene defect, such as maturity-onset diabetes of youth (mutated MODY gene), syndrome of insulin resistance (insulin receptor defect), and maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (mitochondrial gene defect). The genetic component of the more common form of type 2 diabetes is probably complex and involves the interactions of multiple genes and environmental factors. The candidate gene approach has identified several genes that regulate insulin signalling and secretion, but their contributions to diabetes are small. Recent genome scan studies have been conducted to identify major susceptibility loci that are linked with type 2 diabetes. This information would provide new insights into the identification of novel genes and pathways that lead to this complex disease.
Key words: Amyloid metabolism; Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent/genetics; DNA, mitochondrial; Insulin/deficiency; Insulin resistance/genetic; Mutation
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