Hong Kong Med J 2011;17:391–7 | Number 5, October 2011
Menstrual disorders in a Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic: patient presentations and longitudinal outcomes
PW Chung, Symphorosa SC Chan, KW Yiu, Terence TH Lao, Tony KH Chung
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
OBJECTIVE. To study the presentations, diagnoses, and outcomes in adolescents with menstrual disorders.
DESIGN. Prospective cohort study.
SETTING. Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Hong Kong.
PARTICIPANTS. A total of 577 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The presentations and diagnoses of adolescents with menstrual disorders were reviewed and their menstrual outcomes determined by a telephone survey.
RESULTS. In all, 47% presented with menorrhagia, prolonged menstruation, and short menstrual cycles; 27% had secondary amenorrhoea, 12% had dysmenorrhoea, 11% had oligomenorrhoea, and 3% had primary amenorrhoea. Significant diagnoses included congenital genital tract anomalies, premature ovarian failure, anorexia nervosa, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Polycystic ovarian syndrome was diagnosed in 16% of the cohort. In all, 24% of these 577 patients had abnormal menstrual cycles 4 years later. Direct logistic regression analysis indicated a cycle length of more than 35 days at presentation (adjusted odds ratio=2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.5), previous diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (adjusted odds ratio=2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4), and current body mass index of 23 kg/m2 or higher (adjusted odds ratio=1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.0) were risk factors for persistently long menstrual cycle exceeding 35 days. Adolescents who were screened out with a definitive diagnosis after initial assessment were at low risk of persistently long menstrual cycles at follow-up (adjusted odds ratio=0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.8).
CONCLUSIONS. Adolescent menstrual disorders should not be ignored. Long cycle, diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome at first consultation, and a current body mass index of 23 kg/m2 or higher were statistically associated with persistent problems.
Key words: Adolescent; Amenorrhea; Menstruation disturbances; Polycystic ovary syndrome
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