Hong Kong Med J 2007;13:421-6 | Number 6, December 2007
The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in male patients who have lower urinary tract symptoms
CF Ng, A Wong, ML Li, SY Chan, SK Mak, WS Wong
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
OBJECTIVES. To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms, and their possible correlation with the severity of such symptoms.
DESIGN. Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING. Specialty clinic, Hong Kong.
PATIENTS. A total of 617 men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms between April 2005 and October 2006.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Presence of cardiovascular risk factors inferred from the prior and current medical and social history as well as physical examination and investigative findings, among patients with International Prostatic Symptom Scores of different severity.
RESULTS. Of 617 patients, 268 (43%) had known hypertension and 318 (52%) had a history of smoking. According to the World Health Organization criteria for Asian populations, 396 (64%) patients were considered to be overweight (body mass index > or =23 kg/m(2)). A total of 178 (29%) patients were either known to have or were diagnosed to have dysglycaemia during workup. For dyslipidaemia and hyperuricaemia, the corresponding figures were 331 (54%) and 191 (31%). In total, 264 (43%) patients were newly diagnosed as having dysglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, or hyperuricaemia. Logistic regression indicated that only hyperuricaemia and a smoking history were significant predictors of moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms (International Prostatic Symptom Score > or =8), with respective adjusted odds ratios of 2.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.31; P=0.022) and 2.11 (1.24-3.57, P=0.006). Patients with moderate-to-severe International Prostatic Symptom Scores had a statistically higher chance of having at least one cardiovascular risk factor during assessment (P=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS. Cardiovascular risk factors were prevalent in male patients who had lower urinary tract symptoms; a large portion of these cardiovascular risk factors were not recognised until their urological consultations. Patients with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms (International Prostatic Symptom Score > or =8) had statistically higher chances of having more cardiovascular risk factors.
Key words: Cardiovascular diseases; Hyperuricemia; Smoking; Urinary tract infections
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