Kawasaki disease in Hong Kong, 1994 to 2000

YM Ng, RYT Sung, LY So, NC Fong, MHK Ho, YW Cheng, SH Lee, WC Mak, DML Wong, MC Yam, KL Kwok, WK Chiu
Department of Paediatrics, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong

OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of Kawasaki disease in children in Hong Kong.

DESIGN. Retrospective survey of medical records from July 1994 to June 1997, and prospective data collection from July 1997 to June 2000.

SETTING. Hospitals with a paediatric unit in Hong Kong.

PATIENTS. Patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease between July 1994 and June 2000 in public hospitals in Hong Kong.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Incidence of Kawasaki disease and coronary artery aneurysm rates.

RESULTS. A total of 696 cases of Kawasaki disease were reported. There were 435 (62.5%) boys and 261 (37.5%) girls giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1. The age ranged from 1 month to 15 years 5 months with a median of 1.7 years. Infants (<1 year) constituted the largest group of patients (223,32.0%) and overall, 638 (91.7%) were younger than 5 years. Skin rash, conjunctivitis, and oral signs were among the principal clinical features present in over 80% of cases. Prominent cervical lymph nodes larger than 1.5 cm were less commonly found (24%). Coronary artery aneurysms or ectasia were present in 15.7% (109/696), 8.5% (59/696), and 5.0% (35/696) of patients at 2, 4, and 8 weeks, respectively. The incidence of Kawasaki disease per 100 000 children under 5 years was significantly higher in the prospective study period than in the retrospective period (39 vs 26, <0.001).

CONCLUSION. The incidence of Kawasaki disease is high in Hong Kong and is 39 per
100 000 children below 5 years of age. The coronary artery aneurysm prevalence is 5%. Intravenous gamma-globulin and high-dose aspirin is the mainstay of treatment.

Hong Kong Med J 2005;11:331-5

Key words: Child; Coronary aneurysms; Incidence; Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome

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