Hong Kong Med J 2003;9:335-40 | Number 5, October 2003
Outcome analysis of intraventricular thrombolytic therapy for intraventricular haemorrhage
MWY Lee, KY Pang, WWS Ho, CK Wong
Department of Neurosurgery, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, 3 Lok Man Road, Chai Wan, Hong Kong
OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the outcome of intraventricular thrombolytic therapy for intraventricular haemorrhage and to formulate a safe and effective regimen.
DESIGN. Retrospective study.
SETTING. Regional neurosurgical centre, Hong Kong.
PATIENTS. Twenty-nine consecutive adult patients who presented from November 1995 to November 1998 with non-traumatic intraventricular haemorrhage (Graeb score, >=7) with no active rebleeding risks from vascular abnormalities.
INTERVENTIONS. Fourteen consecutive patients received intraventricular streptokinase via the external ventricular drainage, and 15 consecutive patients received intraventricular urokinase treatment.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Patient demographics, Glasgow coma scale score, Graeb score, mortality rate, shunt rate, fever response, infection rate, catheter blockage rate, and local and systemic bleeding tendency. RESULT. The mean age of the 16 men and 13 women was 59 years (range, 14-76 years). The median Graeb score for cases of intraventricular haemorrhage was 10 (range, 7-12). There was no significant difference in terms of the Graeb score distribution, total dosage, and duration of treatment between the streptokinase and urokinase groups. More cases of fever were observed in the streptokinase group, which could be due to its antigenicity. The infection rate of the central nervous system was 3%, and the shunt rate was 24%. The overall 1-month postoperative mortality was 10%, which was related to a low preoperative Glasgow coma scale score (<=4). No local rebleeding, systemic coagulopathy, or catheter blockage occurred.
CONCLUSIONS. Intraventricular thrombolytic therapy is a safe and effective method of managing intraventricular haemorrhage. We suggest instilling 20 000 units urokinase intra-operatively, followed by 20 000 units daily for about 3 days, except in cases of vascular abnormality, bleeding tendency, and trauma.
Key words: Cerebral ventricles; Drainage; Intracranial hemorrhages; Thrombolytic therapy; Tomography, X-ray computed
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