Hong Kong Med J 2010;16:447–54 | Number 6, December 2010
Hong Kong's experience on the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the treatment of influenza A (H1N1)
Kenny KC Chan, KL Lee, Philip KN Lam, KI Law, Gavin M Joynt, WW Yan
Department of Intensive Care, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Chai Wan, Hong Kong
OBJECTIVE. To report Hong Kong's experience on the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza A (H1N1).
DESIGN. Multi-centred, retrospective observational study.
SETTING. Intensive care units in Hong Kong.
PATIENTS. Recipients of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection from 1 May 2009 to 28 February 2010.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE. Hospital mortality.
RESULTS. During the study period, 120 patients were mechanically ventilated in intensive care units, among whom seven received veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The median (interquartile range) age of the latter patients was 42 (39-50) years, four had various chronic illnesses and one had a body mass index of greater than 30 kg/m2. The median (interquartile range) time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 5 (4-7) days. Corresponding values for the duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, and hospital stay were 6 (6-10), 19 (11-25), 19 (18-30), and 31 (25-55) days, respectively. One patient died (hospital mortality, 14%) and six made full recoveries. All seven patients received oseltamivir; in addition three received intravenous zanamivir, four received convalescent plasma, and one received hyperimmune immunoglobulin. Nosocomial infection was the commonest complication. There was no life- or limb-threatening complication directly attributable to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
CONCLUSION. In response to the pandemic of influenza A (H1N1), some intensive care units in Hong Kong were able to offer extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to selected cases. In this small series, patient outcomes were similar to those reported in other observational studies, indicating that intensive care units in Hong Kong are capable of successfully introducing this technology. However, the cost-effectiveness and optimal delivery of this strategy remain uncertain.
Key words: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype; Intensive care units; Respiratory insufficiency
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