Hong Kong Med J 2006;12:10-4 | Number 1, February 2006
Sodium ramping reduces hypotension and symptoms during haemodialysis
HL Tang, SH Wong, KH Chu, W Lee, A Cheuk, CMK Tang, ILL Kong, KS Fung, WK Tsang, HWH Chan, KL Tong
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Laichikok, Hong Kong
OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the effectiveness of sodium ramping (profiling) in reducing hypotensive episodes and symptoms during haemodialysis.
DESIGN. Prospective study.
SETTING. Regional hospital, Hong Kong.
PATIENTS. Thirteen patients who experienced frequent episodes of hypotension and/or symptoms such as cramps, dizziness, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, and headache during haemodialysis in the preceding 4 weeks.
INTERVENTIONS. Each patient was switched from standard haemodialysis with a constant dialysate sodium concentration of 135 to 140 mmol/L to a ramped sodium haemodialysis for a period of 4 weeks. During this time the dialysate sodium concentration was ramped linearly downwards from 150 mmol/L at the beginning of dialysis to 140 mmol/L at the end of dialysis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Intradialytic hypotensive episodes, intradialytic symptoms, nursing interventions, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and interdialytic weight gain.
RESULTS. A total of 248 haemodialysis sessions undertaken by 13 patients were analysed. Switching from constant sodium haemodialysis to ramped sodium haemodialysis resulted in a significant reduction in the number of intradialytic hypotensive episodes from 5.8 (standard deviation, 6.4) to 2.2 (3.3) [P
CONCLUSION. Sodium ramping during haemodialysis effectively reduces hypotensive episodes and intradialytic symptoms. Post-dialysis blood pressure is better maintained. A side-effect of sodium ramping is a greater interdialytic weight gain.
Key words: Blood pressure; Hemodialysis solutions; Kidney failure, chronic; Renal dialysis; Sodium
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